日本語の名詞

Japanese Nouns

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It was previously mentioned that kanji is often not used for certain Japanese words in modern Japanese literature. This is particularly true when it comes to pronouns and interrogatives. With the exceptions of 私(わたくし), 彼(かれ), 彼女(かのじょ), 誰(だれ), and perhaps a few others, the kanji for the following words are rarely used in modern Japanese literature. Still, its good to be moderately familiar with them in order to recognize them when they appear.

Pronouns & Interrogatives
I (polite, not gender specific) わたくし [私]
I (more feminine) わたし、あたし [私]
I (used by men to familiar people) ぼく [僕]
I (used by men to subordinates/familiar) おれ [俺]
We (Polite) わたくしたち [私達]
We (Humble) わたくしども [私供]
We (used by men to familiar people) ぼくたち、ぼくら [僕達]、[僕等]
We (used by men to familiar people) おれたち、おれら [俺達]、[俺等]


You (polite, not gender specific) あなた [貴方]
You (less polite) あんた [貴方]
You (to subordinates or familiar people) おまえ [お前]
You (used primarily by men to familiar) きみ [君]
You (plural, polite) あなたたち [貴方達]
You (plural, honorific) あなたがた [貴方方]
You (plural to subordinates/familiar) おまえたち、おまえら [お前達]、[お前等]
You (plural used by men to to familiar) きみたち、きみら [君達]、[君等]


He かれ [彼]
They (men) かれら [彼等]
She かのじょ [彼女]
They (women) かのじょら [彼女等]
This person/That person/
That person over there
このひと/そのひと/
あのひと
この人 / その人 /
あの人
This person/That person/
That person over there (polite)
このかた/そのかた/
あのかた
この方 / その方 /
あの方
These people/Those people/
Those people over there
このひとたち/そのひとたち/
あのひとたち
この人達 / その人達 /
あの人達
These people/Those people/
Those people over there
このひとびと/そのひとびと/
あのひとびと
この人々 / その人々 /
あの人々
These people/Those people/
Those people over there (polite)
このかたがた/そのかたがた/
あのかたがた
この方々 / その方々 /
あの方々


The following list of pronouns should be very cautiously used. Some are the equivalent of using such English vulgarity as "a**hole" or "sh*thead", so obviously these terms can be very offensive. This is a relatively small list of such vulgarity and is only provided to elucidate the student of Japanese and not to be used in everyday Japanese dialogue.

Vulgar & Slang Pronouns
You (vulgar) てめえ  
You (plural, vulgar) てめえら [てめえ等]
You (vulgar) おのれ [己れ]
You (vulgar) きさま [貴様]
Guy, Fella (slang) やつ [奴]
Guys, Fellas (slang) やつら [奴等]
Guy, Rascal (slang) やろう [野郎]
He, She, That guy (slang) あいつ [彼奴]
They, Those guys (slang) あいつら [彼奴等]
Kid, Brat (vulgar) がき [餓鬼]
Kids, Brats (vulgar) がきども [餓鬼供]
Fool (vulgar) あほう [阿呆]
Fool, Idiot (vulgar) ばか [馬鹿]
Fool, Idiot (vulgar) ばかやろう [馬鹿野郎]
Pervert, Stalker ちかん [痴漢]
Pervert (slang) スケベ、エッチ  


The following interrogatives can all be made to have entirely different meanings with the addition of か (so that they are in fact no longer interrogatives). A list of common words that fit this pattern are shown below. The addition of も will also dramatically alter the meaning of the following interrogatives depending on the context of the sentence and wethor or not the predicate is positive or negative.

Interrogatives
Who? だれ [誰]
Which (of the two)? どちら、どっち  
Where? どこ [何処]
What kind of [noun]? どんな [noun]  
Which [noun] among many? どの [noun]
How? どう
Which among many? どれ
How much? いくら [幾ら]
How many? いくつ [幾つ]
When? いつ [何時]
What? なに、なん [何]
How many [noun]? なん+[counter]+[noun]
Why? なぜ、どうして [何故]


Someone だれか [誰か]
Either one (of two) どちらか
Somewhere どこか [何処か]
Somehow どうか
Any one (of many) どれか
Some (amount) いくらか [幾らか]
Some (number) いくつか [幾つか]
Sometime いつか [何時か]
Something なにか [何か]
Several なん+[counter]+[noun]+か  
Somehow なぜか [何故か]


Everyone, Nobody だれも [誰も]
Both, Neither どちらも
Everywhere, Nowhere どこも [何処も]
Very much, Not at all どうも
Everyone of them, None どれも
Any amount, Not much いくらも [幾らも]
Several, Not many いくつも [幾つも]
Always, Never いつも [何時も]
--, Nothing なにも [何も]
Any number, Not many なん+[counter]+[noun]+も  


Many Japanese Pronouns fit what is sometimes called the Ko-So-A-Do pattern. The following chart illustrates how the following words, some nouns and some non-conjugative adjectives, change their meaning based on four variations of the first few syllables.
Ko-So-A-Do Words
これ This それ That あれ That (over there) どれ Which?
こりゃ This* そりゃ That* ありゃ That (over there)* どりゃ Which?
こちら This one (of two), This way そちら That one (of two), That way あちら That 1 (of 2), That way (over there) どちら Which one (of two)? Which way?
こっち This one (of two), This way** そっち That one (of two), That way** あっち That 1 (of 2), That way (over there)** どっち Which one (of 2)? Which way?**
ここ Here そこ There あそこ There どこ Where?
この This [noun]*** その That [noun]*** あの That [noun] over there*** どの Which [noun] (among many)?***
こんな This kind of [noun]*** そんな That kind of [noun]*** あんな That kind of [noun]*** どんな Which/What kind of [noun]?***
これら These それら Those あれら Those (over there) どれら Which? (plural)
*These are colloquial forms of これは, それは, あれは, and どれは.
**These are colloquial forms of こちら, そちら, あちら, and どちら.
***These are actually non-conjungtive adjectives (連体詞 - れんたいし), not nouns.


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