動詞の変化

Verb Conjugation

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This section provides an introduction to the dynamics of Japanese verbs, how they are conjugated and their usage in Japanese. In Japanese the verb always comes at the end of the clause or sentence.

-られる / -える (potential form)
To make the potential form of a group 1 verb (with the exception of 見る, miru*), simply add -られる to the verb base.  To make the potential form of a group 2 verb (with the exception of 聞く, kiku* and 分かる, wakaru*), use the "e" formative plus -る. For polite potential form take the informal potential form, drop the final -る and add -ます:

Group 1 - Vowel Stem Verbs
 見る
[miru]
 見える
[mieru]*
 見えます
[miemasu]*
 食べる 
[taberu]
 食べられる
[taberareru]
 食べられます 
[taberaremasu]
 
Group 2 - Consonant Stem Verbs
 話す
[hanasu]
 話せる
[hanaseru]
 話せます
[hanasemasu]
 飛ぶ
[tobu]
 飛べる
[toberu]
 飛べます
[tobemasu]
 読む
[yomu]
 読める
[yomeru]
 読めます
[yomemasu]
 死ぬ
[shinu]
 死ねる
[shineru]
 死ねます
[shinemasu]
 聞く
[kiku]
 聞こえる
[kikoeru]*
 聞こえます
[kikoemasu]*
 泳ぐ
[oyogu]
 泳げる
[oyogeru]
 泳げます
[oyogemasu]
 待つ
[matsu]
 待てる
[materu]
 待てます
[matemasu]
 習う
[narau]
 習える
[naraeru]
 習えます
[naraemasu]
 座る
[suwaru]
 座れる
[suwareru]
 座れます
[suwaremasu]
 
Group 3 - Irregular Verbs
 する
[suru]
 出来る
[dekiru]
 出来ます
[dekimasu]
 来る
[kuru]
 来られる
[korareru]
 来られます
[koraremasu]
 行く
[iku]
 行ける
[ikeru]*
 行けます
[ikemasu]*

* There are a few verbs that have unique potential forms or none at all: Potential form is only used on transitive verbs (verbs that act on a direct object). However the when using potential form the object particle changes from を to が.

  1. 貴方は日本語が話せますか?
      [anata wa nihongo ga hanasemasu ka?]
      Can you speak Japanese?



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