動詞の変化

Verb Conjugation

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This section provides an introduction to the dynamics of Japanese verbs, how they are conjugated and their usage in Japanese. In Japanese the verb always comes at the end of the clause or sentence.

-ます (polite form)
-masu is attached to any verb to make the tone of the speech polite. Aside from changing the tone, it has no meaning. To make the -masu form of a Group 1 verb simply add -ます to the verb base. For Group 2 verbs use the "i" formative followed by -ます.



Group 1 - Vowel Stem Verbs
-iru
 見る
[miru, to see]
 見ます
[mimasu, to see]
-eru
 食べる
[taberu, to eat]
 食べます 
[tabemasu, to eat]
 
Group 2 - Consonant Stem Verbs
-su
 話す
[hanasu, to speak]
 話します
[hanashimasu, to speak]
-bu
 飛ぶ
[tobu, to fly]
 飛びます
[tobimasu, to fly]
-mu
 読む
[yomu, to read]
 読みます
[yomimasu, to read]
-nu
 死ぬ
[shinu, to die]
 死にます
[shinimasu, to die]
-ku
 聞く
[kiku, to hear]
 聞きます
[kikimasu, to hear]
-gu
 泳ぐ
[oyogu, to swim]
 泳ぎます
[oyogimasu, to swim]
-tsu
 待つ
[matsu, to wait]
 待ちます
[machimasu, to wait]
-u
 習う
[narau, to learn]
 習います
[naraimasu, to learn]
-ru
 座る
[suwaru, to sit]
 座ります
[suwarimasu, to sit]
 
Group 3 - Irregular Verbs
 する
[suru, to do]
 します
[shimasu, to do]
 来る
[kuru, to come]
 来ます
[kimasu, to come]
 行く
[iku, to go]
 行きます
[ikimasu, to go]

It is important to remember that only the last verb of a Japanese sentence displays politeness. Just as you would not use the polite form of an adjective in the middle of a sentence:
Incorrect: 赤いですシャツを着ています。 Correct: 赤いシャツを着ています。
You also would not use the polite form of a verb in the middle of a sentence:
Incorrect: 鯨を見えます人はスミスさんです。 Correct: 鯨を見える人はスミスさんです。


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