動詞の変化

Verb Conjugation

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This section provides an introduction to the dynamics of Japanese verbs, how they are conjugated and their usage in Japanese. In Japanese the verb always comes at the end of the clause or sentence.

-られる / -れる (-rareru/-reru, passive or honorific form)
The passive form is frequently used in Japanese because of a strong cultural persuasion toward using non-accusatory language - particularly in formal situations. Saying "The bread was eaten [by you]," is less accusatory than saying "[You] ate the bread." To make the passive form of a group 1 verb, add -られる to the verb base (note: group 1 passive form is identical to group 1 potential form with the exception of 見える, mieru). To make the passive form of a group 2 verb, use the "a" formative and add -れる:



Group 1 - Vowel Stem Verbs
 見る
[miru]
 見られる
[mirareru]
 見られます
[miraremasu]
 食べる 
[taberu]
 食べられる
[taberareru]
 食べられます
[taberaremasu]
 
Group 2 - Consonant Stem Verbs
 話す
[hanasu]
 話される
[hanasareru]
 話されます
[hanasaremasu]
 飛ぶ
[tobu]
 飛ばれる
[tobareru]
 飛ばれます
[tobaremasu]
 読む
[yomu]
 読まれる
[yomareru]
 読まれます
[yomaremasu]
 死ぬ
[shinu]
 死なれる
[shinareru]
 死なれます
[shinaremasu]
 聞く
[kiku]
 聞かれる
[kikareru]
 聞かれます
[kikaremasu]
 泳ぐ
[oyogu]
 泳がれる
[oyogareru]
 泳がれます
[oyogaremasu]
 待つ
[matsu]
 待たれる
[matareru]
 待たれます
[mataremasu]
 習う
[narau]
 習われる
[narawareru]
 習われます
[narawaremasu]
 座る
[suwaru]
 座られる
[suwarareru]
 座られます
[suwararemasu]
 
Group 3 - Irregular Verbs
 する
[suru]
 される
[sareru]
 されます
[saremasu]
 来る
[kuru]
 来られる
[korareru]
 来られます
[koraremasu]
 行く
[iku]
 行かれる
[ikareru]
 行かれます
[ikaremasu]

  1.  パンが誰かに食べられる。
       [pan ga dareka ni taberareru.]
       The bread will be eaten by someone.

  2.  私は会長に笑われました。
       [watashi wa kaichou ni warawaremashita.]
       I was laughed at by the company president.

Passive form is also used for honorific speech. It will generally be understood from the context of the sentence when this form should be construed as passive and when it is meant as honorific. Note that in the following example the verb is meant as honorific and not passive:

  3.  会長が冗談に笑われました。
       [kaichou ga joudan ni warawaremashita.]
       The company president laughed at the joke.



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