動詞の変化

Verb Conjugation

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This section provides an introduction to the dynamics of Japanese verbs, how they are conjugated and their usage in Japanese. In Japanese the verb always comes at the end of the clause or sentence.

-て (conjunctive form)
To make the -て form for both Group 1 and 2 verbs, simply use the -た form but substitute the final -a with -e (i.e. -て, して, んで, いて, いで, and って). The -て form has a number of functions, including a command or as a conjunction, the equivalent of and, while, or so. To make it formal use the -ます form, drop -す and add -して. The polite conjunctive (-まして) form is rarely used:

Group 1 - Vowel Stem Verbs
 見る
[miru]
 見て
[mite]
 見まして
[mimashite]
 食べる 
[taberu]
 食べて
[tabete]
 食べまして 
[tabemashite]
 
Group 2 - Consonant Stem Verbs
 話す
[hanasu]
 話して
[hanashite]
 話しまして
[hanashimashite]
 飛ぶ
[tobu]
 飛んで
[tonde]
 飛びまして
[tobimashite]
 読む
[yomu]
 読んで
[yonde]
 読みまして
[yomimashite]
 死ぬ
[shinu]
 死んで
[shinde]
 死にまして
[shinimashite]
 聞く
[kiku]
 聞いて
[kiite]
 聞きまして
[kikimashite]
 泳ぐ
[oyogu]
 泳いで
[oyoide]
 泳ぎまして
[oyogimashite]
 待つ
[matsu]
 待って
[matte]
 待ちまして
[machimashite]
 習う
[narau]
 習って
[naratte]
 習いまして
[naraimashite]
 座る
[suwaru]
 座って
[suwatte]
 座りまして
[suwarimashite]
 
Group 3 - Irregular Verbs
 する
[suru]
 して
[shite]
 しまして
[shimashite]
 来る
[kuru]
 来て
[kite]
 来まして
[kimashite]
 行く
[iku]
 行って
[itte]
 行きまし
[ikimashite]
 

The following examples show how the -て form is used as a conjunction:

  1. 私は映画を見て友達と話しました。
      [watashi wa eiga o mite tomodachi to hanashimashita.]
      I saw a movie and spoke with some friends.

  2. 明日は友達と話してから図書館に行く。
      [ashita wa tomodachi to hanashite kara toshokan ni iku.]
      Tomorrow after I speak with my friends I will go to the library.

The polite conjunctive (-まして) form is commonly used only during formal occasions:

  3. 開けましておめでとうございます。
      [akemashite omedetou gozaimasu.]
      Happy New Year. lit. (a new year) has opened, congratulations.

  4. 初めましてよろしくお願いします。
      [hajimemashite yoroshiku onegaishimasu.]
      Pleased to meet you. lit. It's the first time (we've met). Please favor me.



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