動詞の変化

Verb Conjugation

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This section provides an introduction to the dynamics of Japanese verbs, how they are conjugated and their usage in Japanese. In Japanese the verb always comes at the end of the clause or sentence.

-れば / -ば, -たら (-reba/-ba, -tara, conditional forms)
To make the -ば form of a group 1 verb, add -れば to the verb base.  To make the -ば form of a group 2 verb, use the "e" formative and add -ば. To make the -たら form of any verb use the past form and add -ら. Because conditional forms are used as conjunctions, there is no formal conditional form. The level of politeness is determined by the final verb of the main clause:

Group 1 - Vowel Stem Verbs
 見る
[miru]
 見れば
[mireba]
 見たら
[mitara]
 食べる 
[taberu]
 食べれば
[tabereba]
 食べたら 
[tabetara]
 
Group 2 - Consonant Stem Verbs
 話す
[hanasu]
 話せば
[hanaseba]
 話したら
[hanashitara]
 飛ぶ
[tobu]
 飛べば
[tobeba]
 飛んだら
[tondara]
 読む
[yomu]
 読めば
[yomeba]
 読んだら
[yondara]
 死ぬ
[shinu]
 死ねば
[shineba]
 死んだら
[shindara]
 聞く
[kiku]
 聞けば
[kikeba]
 聞いたら
[kiitara]
 泳ぐ
[oyogu]
 泳げば
[oyogeba]
 泳いだら
[oyoidara]
 待つ
[matsu]
 待てば
[mateba]
 待ったら
[mattara]
 習う
[narau]
 習えば
[naraeba]
 習ったら
[narattara]
 座る
[suwaru]
 座れば
[suwareba]
 座ったら
[suwattara]
 
Group 3 - Irregular Verbs
 する
[suru]
 すれば
[sureba]
 したら
[shitara]
 来る
[kuru]
 来れば
[kureba]
 来たら
[kitara]
 行く
[iku]
 行けば
[ikeba]
 行ったら
[ittara]

There are four conditional forms commonly used in Japanese. -ば and -たら are conjugations of the conditional verb. と and なら are added after the conditional verb. In the case of と the preceding verb is always in dictionary form and its tense follows that of the primary clause. The differences between and usages of these four conditional forms is subtle. Here are some examples:

-ば Result is one's will or inevitable outcome

  1. 眠ければコーヒーを飲む。
      [nemukereba kouhii o nomu.]
      If [I'm/you're/we're/he's/she's] sleepy [I/you/we/he/she] will drink coffee.

-たら Plain conditional (least restrictive usage: can be used in nearly all situations)

  2. 眠かったらコーヒーを飲む。
      [nemukattara kouhii o nomu.]
      If [I'm/you're/we're/he's/she's] sleepy [I/you/we/he/she] drink(s) coffee.

  3. 眠かったらコーヒーを飲みなさい。
      [nemukattara kouhii o nomi nasai.]
      If you're sleepy, drink coffee.

  4. 眠かったらコーヒーを飲みますか?
      [nemukattara kouhii o nomimasu ka?]
      If [I'm/you're/we're/he's/she's] sleepy, will [I/you/we/he/she] drink coffee?

と Result is an habitual objective statement

  5. 眠いとコーヒーを飲む。
      [nemui to kouhii o nomu.]
      Whenever [I'm/you're/we're/he's/she's] sleepy [I/you/we/he/she] drink(s) coffee.

なら Result is one's will or inevitable outcome or imperitive with subject other than "I"

  6. 眠いならコーヒーを飲む。
      [nemui nara kouhii o nomu.]
      If [I'm/you're/we're/he's/she's] sleepy [I/you/we/he/she] will drink coffee.

  7. 眠いならコーヒーを飲みなさい。
      [nemui nara kouhii o nomi nasai.]
      If you're sleepy, drink coffee.




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