動詞の変化

Verb Conjugation

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This section provides an introduction to the dynamics of Japanese verbs, how they are conjugated and their usage in Japanese. In Japanese the verb always comes at the end of the clause or sentence.

-させられる / -せられる (-saserareru/-serareru, causative-passive form)
The causative-passive form passively denotes that the modified verb is being forced upon the subject. To make the causative form of a group 1 verb, just add -させられる to the verb base.  To make the causative-passive form of a group 2 verb, use the "a" formative and add -せられる:



Group 1 - Vowel Stem Verbs
 見る
[miru]
 見させられる
[misaserareru]
 見させられます
[misaseraremasu]
 食べる 
[taberu]
 食べさせられる
[tabesaserareru]
 食べさせられます
[tabesaseraremasu]
 
Group 2 - Consonant Stem Verbs
 話す
[hanasu]
 話させられる
[hanasaserareru]
 話させられます
[hanasaseraremasu]
 飛ぶ
[tobu]
 飛ばせられる
[tobaserareru]
 飛ばせられます
[tobaseraremasu]
 読む
[yomu]
 読ませられる
[yomaserareru]
 読ませられます
[yomaseraremasu]
 死ぬ
[shinu]
 死なせられる
[shinaserareru]
 死なせられます
[shinaseraremasu]
 聞く
[kiku]
 聞かせられる
[kikaserareru]
 聞かせられます
[kikaseraremasu]
 泳ぐ
[oyogu]
 泳がせられる
[oyogaserareru]
 泳がせられます
[oyogaseraremasu]
 待つ
[matsu]
 待たせられる
[mataserareru]
 待たせられます
[mataseraremasu]
 習う
[narau]
 習わせられる
[narawaserareru]
 習わせられます
[narawaseraremasu]
 座る
[suwaru]
 座らせられる
[suwaraserareru]
 座らせられます
[suwaraseraremasu]
 
Group 3 - Irregular Verbs
 する
[suru]
 させられる
[saserareru]
 させられます
[saseraremasu]
 来る
[kuru]
 来させられる
[kosaserareru]
 来させられます
[kosaseraremasu]
 行く
[iku]
 行かせられる
[ikaserareru]
 行かせられます
[ikaseraremasu]

  1. 日本語を教えさせられました。
      [nihongo o oshiesaseraremashita.]
      I was forced to teach Japanese.

Causative-passive form is also used for high-honorific speech. It will generally be understood from the context of the sentence when this form should be construed as causative-passive and when it is meant as high-honorific. Note that in the following example the purpose of the verb suffix is to make the sentence highly honorific not as causative-passive:

  2. 陛下が日本語を教えさせられました。
      [heika ga nihongo o oshiesaseraremashita.]
      His majesty did us the honor of teaching Japanese. (His majesty taught Japanese.)



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